Câmpia Banatului - Banat plain zone

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Câmpia Banatului region in Romania

Câmpia Banatului region

Câmpia Banatului archaeological sites
Iron age
 
Dacia: Burebista, Cotiso, Decebal
 
Roman rule
 
Period of migration: Visigoth, Hun, Gepid, Avar, Bulgar
 
Hungarian rule
 
Ottoman rule
 
Hapsburg rule
 
Romania
 

Câmpia Banatului area is part of a continuum through the plain regions of southern Bihor, and Arad, to Banat. It can be divided into a number of ethnographic sub-zones: Timişoara, Lugoj, Buziaş, and Sânniclau Mare. The folklore villages of Câmpia Banatului are generally taken to be those in an arc from Sânniclau Mare to Deta.


Views of Câmpia Banatului

This area west and south of Timişoara comprises water meadows and marsh lands of the river Timiş. To the north and east are the slightly higher table lands which meet the mountain and valley ethnographic regions. The wider area of marsh plains are now split between Romania, Hungary and Serbia, but all followed same history until the last century.

There is less archaeological evidence of continued inhabitation in the lowlands. Bronze age tumuli are in the low plains and iron age remains along the edge of the plateau lands to the lower marshes. In 106 Dacia fell to the Romans with Banat becoming part of the Roman imperial province of Dacia. The Romans built their fort at Timişoara on a the site of a Dacian fort.

The departure of the Romans sees the Banat at the border of the Roman, Byzantine, and Bulgarian empires to the south and Visgoth, Hun, Gepid, Avar kingdoms to the north. Slavs settled in the area during the 6th century under the Avar empire which existed throughout the 7th and 8th centuries. The Avar kingdom was probably an ethnic mix of Avars, Gepids (Germanic), Slavs and others, possibly Vlachs and was followed by incorporation into the Bulgarian empire by 824.

The Hungarian fortified town of Temesvar was first document mentioned in 1212, but was destroyed by the Tartars in 1241. In 1438 Banat came under Iancu of Hunedoara to defend the southern border of Hungarian kingdom.

It is likely that Vlachs, Serbians and Bulgarian relocated to the Banat from Serbia and Bulgaria with the advancing of the Ottoman Turks, but the population declined throughout the Turkish-Hungarian wars. After 1718 when Banat became part of the Hapsburg empire the land was drained and populated by state organised colonisation, there was also private colonisation organised by the landlords and spontaneous movements of peasants. This all led to a mix of Germans, Serbs, Romanians, Hungarians, Slovaks (from southern Hungary), and Czechs. A border military zone in the Banat mountains was formed in 1775 with tax privileges to the villages.

History has left a number of important minorities in Câmpia Banatului; Serbian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and the previously large population Swabian Germans has mostly left the region.

Dances

The dances in Câmpia Banatului are few in type, but great in variations.

The men's dance Soroc is linked to the Transylvanian men's dances, but the link pre-dates the introduction of Austo-Hungarian boot slapping sequences to Transylvania, and the Soroc has developed into a solo dance of great difficulty.

The couple dances Întoasa and Pre loc (de doi) may be either in column formation or have developed into scattered couples. These dances have similarities to the Banat mountain De doi, but also incorporate influences from the neighbouring regions of Bihor to the north with the s-q-s-q-s rhythm,  and figures from the Hungarian plains to the west.

Line dances
Balkan 3 measure 4 measure Hora uni-directional bi-directional in place
  Hora      
Men's dances
Ritual dances Brâul Group men's dances Lad's dances Verbunc
    Soroc Soroc  
Couple dances
Processional
walking dance
Turning dances Column dances Csardas Germanic &
central European
Others
    Întoasa, Pre loc      

Music

Accompaniment perhaps originates from the sound of the bagpipe as the melody is clad in maintained chords played by the violins and the double bass. Cârligul, Cărăbăşeasca (or Cimpoereasca), Piperul, Judecata, Soroc, Intoasa and Pe loc belong to this zone.

The improvised Doina is rare and Banat, and found only sporadically in the instrumental repertoire.

Costume

Women's costume
Shirt Aprons/skirt Headwear Belt Overgarments
         
Men's costume
Shirt Trousers Headwear Belt Overgarments
         

References

Bosic, M. (1989), Narodna Nošnja Slovaka U Banatu-Kovacica, Kulturno-Prosvjetni Sabor Hrvatske, Zagreb

Fosca, G. (1971), Muzeul Satului Studii si Cercetari, Bucharest, Muzeul Satului

Telbizov, M. T. K. (1958), Narodnata Nosiya na Banatskite Bulgari, Akademiya

Turcus, A. (1982), Portul Popular Românesc din Judeţul Timiş, Timişoara, Comitetul de Cultura Timis

Giurchescu, A. & Bloland, S. (1995), Romanian Traditional Dance, Wild Flower Press, Mill Valley, California

Giurescu, C (1972), Chronological History of Romania, Editura Enciclopedică Română, Bucharest

Latcu, I. M. A. (1971), Folclor Coreografic din Vaile Timisului si Bistrei, Centrul creatiei populare Caras-Severin

Gainariu-Varone, G. T. N. (1979), Dictionarul Jocurilor Populare Romanesti, Editura Litera

Stoica, G & Petrescu, P (1997), Dicţionar de artă populara, Bucureşti

Ministerul Culturii şi Cultelor lista monumentelor istorice 2004 (http://www.cultura.ro/)

Tiberiu Alexandru Electrecord STM-EPE 0751

Florin Georgescu EPE 0284

Discography

Recontre avec la Roumanie "Banat", Electrecord STM-EPE 0751

Muzica populară Bănăteană, Elecrtrecord EPE 0284

Nelu Stan (violin), Elecrtrecord EPE 01336

Efta Botoca (violin), Electrecord ST-EPE 01963, Electrecord ST-EPE 03783, Electrecord ST-EPE 04199

Ensemble Folklorique Timisul, Electrecord ST-EPE 01533

Jocuri Populare din Banat, Electrecord ST-EPE 03090

Ansambul Banatul,  Electrecord ST-EPE 01263

Muzica Populare Banateana, Electrecord ST-EPE 00284

Ion Peptenar (taragot), Electrecord ST-EPE 03653

Ilie si Radu Vincu (violin), Electrecord ST-EPE 03223

© Eliznik2006, Aug-07