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Bronze age
Iron age & Dacia
Gepids & Goths

The western part of the modern region of Transylvania is often referred as Crişana after three tributaries of the Criş River.

The western side of this area is part of the Pannonian Plain, the east has valleys up to the Transylvanian plateau and the Apuseni mountains.

The current western boundary was drawn in 1919 mostly along ethnic divisions. The eastern boundary is the border with historic Transylvania.

Following the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman army in the 16th century this area was known as 'Partium' and was linked to Transylvania during the Ottoman domination.

Summary history


The area has been populated continuously from the earliest times - with the middle Neolithic Starčevo-Criş-Körös culture, through the Bronze age where this area dominated regional Bronze production, and the Iron age resulting in the Dacian kingdom. Following the invasion of Dacia by the Romans this area was outside 'Roman Dacia'.

Age of migrations

During the age of migrations invading powers held the Panonian plain: Goths, Gepids,Huns, Avars, Slavs and Magyars.

The Pannonian plain was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The diocese in the region of Bihar was founded in 1083 indicating the very early incorporation in the Kingdom of Hungarian.

1571 - Principality of Transylvania

Events leading to the Principality of Transylvania:

Principality of Transylvania was a semi-independent state existing from 1571 to 1711.

1691 - Habsburg acquisition

Events leading to the Habsburg acquisition of Transylvania and Partium:

1867 - Incorporation of Transylvania into Hungary

1919 - Union of Romania and Transylvania


DUNĂRE, N. (1957) Portul Popular Din Bihor, Editura Arta.

DUNĂRE, N. (1959) Textilele Populare Romanesti Din Muntii Bihorului, Editura Arta.

GODEA, I. (1981) Zona Etnografică Beiuş, Editura Sport Turism.

MOZES, T. (1975) Portul Popular Din Bazinul Crişului Alb, Oradea, Muzeul Ţarii Crişurilor.

MOZES, T. (1984) Zona Etnografică Crişul Repede, Editura Sport Turism.

© Eliznik2007, Last updated Mar-08