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Traditional costumes in


Traditional dance
in Romania


Traditional music
in Romania


Ethnographic regions
in Romania




Bulgarian traditional dances


Bulgarian traditional music


Bulgarian traditional customs


Welcome to our website

The name ‘Eliznik was based on an amalgamation of the authors’ names which they had previously used for dance teaching booklets and notes. This website has two parts: the reference ‘fixed pages’ and the newer Blog. These are interlinked through the context dependent menus on the left sidebar, so posts will have links to related reference pages, and references pages will have links to posts. This Blog is divided into three subject areas: Ethnography – our continued research and interest in the customs, music and dancing in the Balkans Academic – subjects from the perspective of academic study Photos – the latest uploads History The …read more

Călușeri as national emblem post-1851

Călușeri, as a group men’s dance for special occasions, was practiced by Romanians in villages in Transylvania in the 19th century, and we can only presume this practice goes further back in history. The development of Călușeri dancing took a parallel path from 1850 which led to a “national” identity portrayed through dance performances. This may well have re-enthused local variants of the old Călușeri in villages where the practice was declining or in the latent repertoire. This page is only to give a hint of Călușeri as a national symbol and popular performance in the late 19th century and …read more

Transylvanian Călușeri

All the Călușeri dance traditions are within the men’s group dance category in that they are performed by a group of men, dancing the same figures and steps in unison, and the dancers are not connected by hands (or any other sticks or swords). Many traditions (but not all) include holding a stick which is used mainly for support or just held upward when needed, or placed on the ground while dancing.

Plaiul Cloșanilor ethnographic zone

The upper plateux area of Mehedinți is historically connected to the town of Baia de Aramă. The area was known first in the early 19th century as Plaiul Munțelui, but locally took the name Plaiul Cloșanilor following the success of fighters from Cloșani during the 1821 revolution. The ethnographic zone also includes the depression to the south east of the uplands between Ilovăț and Bala , other regional reports include the lower areas further southeast (the line east of Drobeta). ReferencesBratiloveanu-Popilian, Marcela (1990). Zona Etnografică Plaiul Cloșanilor. București: Editura Sport Turism.

The Bufeni and Oltenians of Banat

Bufeni is a nickname used for a group of Oltenians that moved to the Banat mountain region in the 18th century to work for the mining industry that was reinvigorated by the Austrians following their acquisition of the Banat region from the Ottoman empire. Before this, during the 17th century, some 13,000 migrants came from Oltenia to work as woodcutters, charcoal burners and coal miners. By 1690 there were some 28 households of Oltenians living in the village of Sasca Română . This period was a turbulent time with changes of authority between Ottoman, Austrian and Transylvanian rulers for much …read more

Banat Bulgarian minority

During the times of the Ottoman occupation, in the 17th to 18th centuries, there were a number of relocations of Bulgarians (both Catholic and Orthodox) to regions north of the Danube. Some relocated further west into the then Hapsburg Banat region, and some subsequently relocated again to modern Bulgaria. During the following centuries the Bulgarians living in a few villages in Romanian and Serbian Banat have maintained their Bulgarian identity whilst those that returned to northern Bulgaria took with them elements of their specific Banat-Bulgarian identity in their costumes, customs, music and dance. There are two locations of origin, two …read more

Dunari (Kladovo) ethnographic region

I have followed the terminology of Paun Durlić by using Dunari (Dunavljani) for this area surrounding the town of Kladovo. In Serbian the wider region is known as Timočka Krajina and this part is often referred to as Ključ. In Romanian it is unclear if this is included in Timoc. Geographically it is clear that this area is closely related to the surroundings of Drobeta, Timoc being further down the Danube and close to the plains of Mehedinți and Dolj. The zone is predominately populated by Romanian speaking peoples known as Vlasi in Serbian or Rumân in their mother tongue, …read more

Crna Reka ethnographic zone

The region of the Crna Reka depression, the valley of the Crni Timok or Crna River, is a separate region to the Timoc ethnographic zone in terms of geographical separation and people. It is noticeable that the northern area is predominantly Romanian speaking and the southern part is predominantly Serbian speaking. Romanian speaking peoples are known as Vlasi in Serbian or Rumân in their mother tongue, or otherwise referred to as Ungareni. This is a term that relates to an origin from within the Hungarian empire which is used for people, costumes and dances on the eastern or southern side …read more

Timoc ethnographic zone

In Serbian the wider region is known as Timočka krajina, in Romanian it is Valea Timocului or just Timoc. The bounded zone shown is just the region that includes Romanian speaking peoples known as Vlasi in Serbian or Rumân in their mother tongue, or otherwise referred to as Țărani (meaning peasants that work the land or written as Carani). The language is related to the Oltenian dialect of Romanian, as opposed to other Vlasi to the west that speak the Banat Romanian dialect. In publications for the area in Serbia and in Bulgaria. The term Câmpeni (meaning plains or written …read more

Our rational for depiction of ethnographic zones

There are a few basic concepts behind our depiction of ethnographic zones based around our interest in traditional or folk cultures, not nation and national history. Music and dance in the community can change with fashions, however customs change less rapidly. So we are interested in the present and the not so distant past situations. We examine from the present into the past through an anthropological lens rather than tracing history from the past to the present. In the present time frame we are interested in the concept of ethnographic zones as some type of geographically bounded community and its …read more